Entrepreneurship by necessity in times of pandemic: Entrepreneurial motivation and the regulatory focus in explaining the intention to undertake





Entrepreneurship, Regulatory Focus, Intent to undertake, Motivation in Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship by necessity


Objective: This study aims to analyze the effect of the need for security on the intention to undertake when mediated by entrepreneurial motivation with the regulatory focus on college students. Methodology/approach: Using analysis of variance and linear regression tests, we conducted data analysis on both direct relationships and mediations with a sample consisting of 217 university students. Main results: We identified that the need for safety positively influences entrepreneurial motivation. We also recognized that this result occurs through the double sequential mediation of entrepreneurial motivation and regulatory focus. Thus, students with a promotional regulatory focus were more willing to undertake than those whose regulatory focus is on prevention. Theoretical/methodological contributions: Higgins and Pinelli (2020) indicated that entrepreneurship rarely uses regulatory focus theory despite it being adequate. Furthermore, the economic crisis generated by the COVID-19 pandemic may be a factor that influences the motivation to undertake, as it is an extrinsic motivation driven by the need for security. Relevance/originality: We identified that the need for security can trigger the motivation to undertake, making individuals present a state of promotional self-regulation. Social/management contributions: Based on the results, it can be stated that entrepreneurial education should address different types of communication in order to encourage future entrepreneurs. Clarification of the gain is commonly applied in classrooms, but no-loss communication should also be adopted.


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Author Biographies

Eduardo Mesquita, Centro Universitário SENAC (SENAC-SP)

Eduardo Mesquita has a PhD from the Postgraduate Program in Administration (PPGA-Consumption and digital transformation) at Universidade Nove de Julho (2020). Master in Administration (Marketing) from the Postgraduate Program in Administration (PPGA) at Universidade Nove de Julho (2019). Bachelor's degree in Administration (2017), postgraduate degree in People Management (2016) and degree in Marketing (2015) from Universidade Nove de Julho. He is currently a Professor at USP / ESALQ, Senac-SP and PUC-Campinas. He also serves as Brand Research Business Unit Leader at Ilumeo – Data Science Company. Areas of interest in research in Consumer Behavior with an emphasis on: Fake News, Review (false and genuine), Regulatory focus and brand transgression.

Tainá Townsend, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE)

Taina Townsend has a PhD from the Postgraduate Program in Administration at Universidade Nove de Julho (2022). Master from the Professional Master's Program in Administration - Project Management at Universidade Nove de Julho (2018). Specialization in Project Management and bachelor's degree in Business Administration from Universidade Nove de Julho (2016). Degree in Human Resources Administration from Universidade Nove de Julho (2012). She has experience in the Administration area, working mainly on the following topics: individual skills, industry 4.0, project management, innovation projects and CRM (Customer Relationship Management). Areas of research interest: social comparison and influence, pro-social consumption, consumer decision making, and consumer-brand relationships.

Prof. Dr. Evandro Lopes, Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing (ESPM)

Evandro Luiz Lopes is a Full Professor in Marketing at the Federal University of São Paulo, Post-doctorate in Administration (Marketing) at the Center for Postgraduate Studies and Research in Administration (CEPEAD) at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (2016). He holds a PhD in Administration (Marketing) from the Postgraduate Program in Administration (PPGA) at Universidade Nove de Julho (2010) and a Master's in Administration (Marketing) from the same institution (2007). Between 2012 and 2019 he was Scientific Editor of the Revista Brasileira de Marketing (ReMark) / Brazilian Journal of Marketing (BJM). He is currently a Full Professor at ESPM-Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing working in the PPGA-Postgraduate Program in Administration and in the MPCC-Professional Master's Degree in Consumer Behavior, teaching the subjects of Quantitative Methods and Design and Analysis of Experiments. He also works as Adjunct Professor at EPPEN-Escola Paulista de Política, Economia e Negócios at the Federal University of São Paulo, teaching the subjects of Consumer Behavior and Marketing Research. He coordinates research projects funded by CNPq, for which he is also a Research Productivity Fellow (PQ2 / CNPq), in addition to acting as a reviewer for renowned academic journals. His research interests focus on the purchasing decision process and brand evaluation in the context of consumer behavior.


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How to Cite

Mesquita, E., Townsend, T., & Lopes, E. (2024). Entrepreneurship by necessity in times of pandemic: Entrepreneurial motivation and the regulatory focus in explaining the intention to undertake. REGEPE Entrepreneurship and Small Business Journal, 13(1), e2266. https://doi.org/10.14211/regepe.esbj.e2266