Entrepreneurship in non-Schumpeterian (or alternative) ways: Effectuation and Bricolage to overcome crises


  • Edmilson de Oliveira Lima Graduate Program in Administration (PPGA), Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP, Brazil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1833-8742




Effectuation, Bricolage, Resource limitation, Crises, Lifestyle entrepreneurship, Social entrepreneurship


Objective: This essay aims to point out impediments to Schumpeterianism and the potential of the non-Schumpeterian ways regarding effectuation and bricolage to overcome crises. Methodology/approach: This is an essay based on the literature available mainly on effectuation and entrepreneurial bricolage as well as on empirical data from semi-structured interviews using qualitative methods. Main results: The text argues that the effectuation and bricolage approaches are particularly appropriate and useful for overcoming resource constraints, including their aggravation during crises. With the use of examples and a real empirical case, it constitutes a basis for further studies and dissemination of knowledge and can be useful as an inspiration for a more conscious, disseminated and perfected use of these non-Schumpeterian ways in entrepreneurship. Theoretical/methodological contributions: The study offers arguments, a theoretical framework with elements of a literature review and empirical data conducive to new promising research on effectuation and bricolage. Relevance/originality: The essay presents promising conceptual relationships and aspects of reality that are frequent and relevant, but not yet explored in national and international studies, in particular because it deals with effectuation and bricolage as ways of overcoming resource limitation and crises in lifestyle entrepreneurship (LE) and social entrepreneurship. Social/management contributions: Generation of greater awareness regarding the importance and need for research and use of entrepreneurial effectuation and bricolage, providing useful practices for doing a lot with little, overcoming resource limitations and overcoming crises.

JEL Code: L26


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Edmilson de Oliveira Lima, Graduate Program in Administration (PPGA), Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP, Brazil

holds a Ph.D. in Administration from HEC Montreal, Canada. He works as researcher and professor at the Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) in Brazil. He is the scientific editor for PODIUM Sport, Leisure and Tourism Review and the scientific director for ANEGEPE – National Association of Studies in Entrepreneurship and Management of Small Businesses.



Akinboye, A. K., & Morrish, S. C. (2022). Conceptualizing post-disaster entrepreneurial decision-making: Prediction and control under extreme environmental uncertainty. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 68, 102703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102703

Ariely, D. (2010). Predictably irrational: The hidden forces that shape our decisions. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.

Ateljevic I. & Doorne S., (2000). Staying within the Fence: Lifestyle Entrepreneurship in Tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8(5), 378- 392. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580008667374

Baker, T., & Nelson, R. E. (2005). Creating something from nothing: resource construction through entrepreneurial bricolage. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50(3), 329-366. https://doi.org/10.2189/asqu.2005.50.3.329

Cardon, M. S., Wincent, J., Singh, J., & Drnovsek, M. (2009). The nature and experience of entrepreneurial passion. Academy of management Review, 34(3), 511-532. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2009.40633190

Carter, N. M., Gartner, W. B., & Reynolds, P. D. (1996). Exploring start-up event sequences. Journal of Business Venturing, 11, 151-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(95)00129-8

Ciasullo, M. V., Montera, R., & Pellicano, M. (2019). To what extent are heretics lifestyle entrepreneurs? Insights from tourism SMEs in remote destinations. Piccola Impresa/Small Business, (2). https://doi.org/10.14596/pisb.309

Dacin, M., P. Dacin, and P. Tracey. 2011. “Social Entrepreneurship: A Critique and Future Directions.” Organization Science, 22 (5): 1203–1213. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41303113

Damasio, A. (1994). Descartes’s error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. London: Vintage Books.

Dew, N., & Sarasvathy, S. D. (2005). Entrepreneurial logics for a technology of foolishness. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 21(4), 385-406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scaman.2005.09.009

Down, S., & Giazitzoglu, A. (2014). Identity and entrepreneurship. Routledge Companion to Entrepreneurship. London: Routledge, 102-115.

Fisher, G. (2012). Effectuation, causation, and bricolage: A behavioral comparison of emerging theories in entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(5), 1019-1051. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2012.00537.x

Gonzalez, K., & Winkler, C. (2018). The entrepreneurial breaking point: undergoing moments of crisis. Management Decision.

Greco, S. M. S. S., Morini, C., Lima, E., Inácio, E. ; Onozato, É., Bastos Junior, P. A., Lopes, R. M. A., & Souza, V. L. GEM - Empreendedorismo no Brasil 2020. 1. ed. Curitiba: IBQP, 2021.

Guercini, S., & Ceccarelli, D. (2020). Passion driving entrepreneurship and lifestyle migration: Insights from the lutherie of Cremona. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10843-020-00269-1

Helgadóttir, G., & Sigurðardóttir, I. (2008). Horse‐based tourism: Community, quality and disinterest in economic value. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 8(2), 105-121. https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250802088149

Henricks, M. (2002). Not just a living: The complete guide to creating a business that gives you a life. Cambridge, MA: Perseus.

Hindle, K., & Senderovitz, M. (2010). Unifying three contending approaches to explaining early stage entrepreneurial decision-making and behaviour. In The Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC), Lausanne, Switzerland: Babson College.

Hota, P. K. (2021). Tracing the Intellectual Evolution of Social Entrepreneurship Research: Past Advances, Current Trends, and Future Directions. Journal of Business Ethics, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-021-04962-6

Janssen, F., Fayolle, A., & Wuilaume, A. (2018). Researching bricolage in social entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 30(3-4), 450-470. https://doi.org/10.1080/08985626.2017.1413769

Jones, P., Ratten, V., & Hayduk, T. (2020). Sport, fitness, and lifestyle entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 16(3), 783-793. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-020-00666-x

Klapper, R., Upham, P., & Kurronen, K. (2018). Social capital, resource constraints and low growth communities: lifestyle entrepreneurs in Nicaragua. Sustainability, 10(10), 3813. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103813

Korber, S., & McNaughton, R. B. (2017). Resilience and entrepreneurship: a systematic literature review. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 24(7), 1129-1154. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-10-2016-0356

Langevang, T., & Namatovu, R. (2019). Social bricolage in the aftermath of war. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 31(9-10), 785-805. https://doi.org/10.1080/08985626.2019.1595743

Lévi-Strauss, C. (1962). The savage mind. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Lima, E., Nelson, R., & Lopes, R. M. A. (2020). Inesperadas sinergias e o sub-ótimo: bricolagem e efetuação no empreendedorismo de estilo de vida. Anais do EGEPE - Encontro de Estudos sobre Empreendedorismo e Gestão de Pequenas Empresas.

Mair, J., & Martí, I. (2006). Social Entrepreneurship Research: A Source of Explanation, Prediction, and Delight. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 36-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2005.09.002

Malsch, F., & Guieu, G. (2019). How to get more with less? Scarce resources and high social ambition: effectuation as KM tool in social entrepreneurial projects. Journal of Knowledge Management, 23(10), 1949-1964. https://doi.org/10.1108/JKM-12-2018-0745

Marcketti, S. B., Niehm, L. S., & Fuloria, R. (2006). An exploratory study of lifestyle entrepreneurship and its relationship to life quality. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 34(3), 241-259. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077727X05283632

McMullen, J. S., & Kier, A. S. (2016). Trapped by the entrepreneurial mindset: Opportunity seeking and escalation of commitment in the Mount Everest disaster. Journal of Business Venturing, 31(6), 663-686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2016.09.003

Michaelis, T. L., Carr, J. C., Scheaf, D. J., & Pollack, J. M. (2020). The frugal entrepreneur: A self-regulatory perspective of resourceful entrepreneurial behavior. Journal of Business Venturing, 35(4), 105969. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2019.105969

Moss, T. W., Short, J. C., Payne, G. T., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2011). Dual Identities in Social Ventures: An Exploratory Study. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(4), 805-830. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2010.00372.x

Mouraviev, N., & Avramenko, A. (2020). Lifestyle entrepreneurs: Unpacking their potential for deprived communities. Entrepreneurship for Deprived Communities, Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 163-188.

Nelson, R., & Lima, E. (2020). Effectuations, social bricolage and causation in the response to a natural disaster. Small Business Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-019-00150-z

Pearson, C. M., & Clair, J. A. (1998). Reframing crisis management. Academy of Management Review, 23(1), 59-76. https://doi.org/10.2307/259099

Quarantelli, E. I. (1988). Disaster crisis management: A summary of research findings. Journal of Management Studies, 25: 373-385. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1988.tb00043.x

Read, S., Song, M., & Smit, W. (2009). A meta-analytic review of effectuation and venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(6), 573-587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2008.02.005

Sarasvathy, S. (2001). Causation and effectuation: toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency. Academy of Management Review, 26, 243-263. https://doi.org/10.2307/259121

Sarasvathy, S. D., Forster, W., & Ramesh, A. (2020). De cachos dourados a Gump: mecanismos empreendedores para empreendedores do dia a dia. Revista de Empreendedorismo e Gestão de Pequenas Empresas, 9(1), 189-220. https://doi.org/10.14211/regepe.v9i1.1803

Schumpeter, J.A. (1934). The theory of economic development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Servantie, V., & Rispal, M. H. (2018). Bricolage, effectuation, and causation shifts over time in the context of social entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 30(3-4), 310-335. https://doi.org/10.1080/08985626.2017.1413774

Shepherd, D. A., & Williams, T. (2020). Entrepreneurship responding to adversity: Equilibrating adverse events and disequilibrating persistent adversity. Organization Theory, 1(4). https://doi.org/10.1177/2631787720967678.

Shrivastava, P., Mitroff, I., Miller, D., & Miglani, A. (1988). Understanding industrial crises. Journal of Management Studies, 25: 285-303. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1988.tb00038.x

Simon, H. A. (1947). Administrative behavior: A Study of decision making processes in administrative organization. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Smith, D. J., & Blundel, R. K. (2014). Improvisation and entrepreneurial bricolage versus rationalisation: A case-based analysis of contrasting responses to economic instability in the UK brass musical instruments industry. Journal of General Management, 40(1), 53-78. https://doi.org/10.1177/030630701404000104

Stinchcombe, A. L. (1965). Social structure and organizations. March, J. (Ed.) Handbook of Organizations, Chicago, IL: Rand McNally, pp.142-193.

Storr, V. H., Haeffele-Balch, S., & Grube, L. E. (2016). Community revival in the wake of disaster: Lessons in local entrepreneurship. Springer.

Tsilika, T., Kakouris, A., Apostolopoulos, N., & Dermatis, Z. (2020). Entrepreneurial bricolage in the aftermath of a shock. Insights from Greek SMEs. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 32(6), 635-652. https://doi.org/10.1080/08276331.2020.1764733

Welter, C., Mauer, R., & Wuebker, R. (2016). Bridging behavioral models and theoretical concepts: Effectuation and bricolage in the opportunity creation framework. Strategic Entrepreneurship, 10(1), 5-20. https://doi.org/10.1002/sej

Yitshaki, R., & Kropp, F. (2016). Entrepreneurial passions and identities in different contexts: a comparison between high-tech and social entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 28(3-4), 206-233. https://doi.org/10.1080/08985626.2016.1155743



How to Cite

Lima, E. de O. (2022). Entrepreneurship in non-Schumpeterian (or alternative) ways: Effectuation and Bricolage to overcome crises. Iberoamerican Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 11(3), e2344. https://doi.org/10.14211/ibjesb.e2344