‘What to do when the grills open?’ Entrepreneurial motivations and individual beliefs of former convicts
Keywords:Entrepreneurial Motivation, Salient Beliefs, Penitentiary.
Study Objective: To investigate the entrepreneurial motivations and individual beliefs of former convicts from prison in Ceará regarding opening their own business, according to the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Methodology/Approach: A qualitative research was carried out with eleven former convicts from the Ceará prison system. The data collected through semi-structured interviews were analyzed by Atlas-ti software, using the content analysis pattern matching technique. Results: The former convicts expressed their intention to open their own business based on three motivations: by necessity, by opportunity, and by personal achievement. The interviewees' entrepreneurial intention was influenced by three types of salient belief: behavioral, normative, and perceived control. Theoretical/Methodological contributions: This research promotes and expands the discussion on entrepreneurship after a period of deprivation of liberty, using the TPB to identify the beliefs that precede the entrepreneurial intention. Relevance/Originality: Findings oppose the dichotomous classification of entrepreneurial motivation described by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. The study endorses the important influence of social referents in the construction of normative beliefs, which were perceived as facilitators of behavioral intention, being confused with beliefs of perceived control. Social contributions: Recognizing the low employability of former convicts as a management problem can be the beginning of a debate on strategies that seek to minimize the negative impacts of their low employability. This study is an invitation to discuss joint efforts between public authorities, the population, and academia, to mitigate prejudices that imprison former offenders and society.
Agolla, J. E., Monametsi, G. L., & Phera, P. (2019). Antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions amongst business students in a tertiary institution. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 13(2), 138-152.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50 (2), 179-211.
Alós, R., Esteban, F., Jódar, P., & Miguélez, F. (2015). Effects of prison work programmes on the employability of ex-prisoners. European Journal of Criminology, 12(1), 35-50.
Alstete, J. W. (2008). Aspects of entrepreneurial success. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 15(3), 584-594.
Angulo-Guerrero, M. J., Pérez-Moreno, S., & Abad-Guerrero, I. M. (2017). How economic freedom affects opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship in the OECD countries. Journal of Business Research, 73, 30-37.
Bardin, L. (2011). Análise de conteúdo. São Paulo: Edições 70.
Barba-Sánchez, V., & Atienza-Sahuquillo, C. (2017). Entrepreneurial motivation and self-employment: evidence from expectancy theory. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 13(4), 1097-1115.
Barros, I. C. F., Madruga, L. R. D. R. G., Ávila, L. V., & Beuron, T. A. (2014). Atitude empreendedora na percepção de empreendedores individuais e sociais. Revista de Contabilidade e Organizações, 8(21), 36-45.
Behling, G., Pereira, C. M. D., Mazzoleni, E. C., Baccin, S. S., & Lenzi, F. C. (2015). Microempreendedor individual catarinense: uma análise descritiva do perfil dos empreendedores individuais em Santa Catarina. NAVUS-Revista de Gestão e Tecnologia, 5(1), 65-78.
Block, J. H., & Wagner, M. (2010). Necessity and opportunity entrepreneurs in Germany: characteristics and earnings differentials. Schmalenbach Business Review, 62(2), 154-174.
Carsrud, A., & Brännback, M. (2011). Entrepreneurial motivations: what do we still need to know?. Journal of Small Business Management, 49(1), 9-26.
Carter, N. M., Gartner, W. B., Shaver, K. G., & Gatewood, E. J. (2003). The career reasons of nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(1), 13-39.
Cavazos-Arroyo, J.; Puente-Díaz, R., & Agarwal, N. (2017). An examination of certain antecedents of social entrepreneurial intentions among Mexico residents. Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios, 19(64), 180-199.
Ceará. Secretaria de Justiça e Cidadania. (2017). Sejus entrega carrinhos de lanche para egressos do sistema penitenciário. Recuperado de http://www.ceara.gov.br/2017/
Cordeiro, A. M. (2019). A educação nas prisões. ID on line – Revista Multidisciplinar e de Psicologia, 13(48), 214-223.
Costelloe, A., & Langelid, T. (2011). Prison Education and Training in Europe–a review and commentary of existing literature, analysis and evaluation. Directorate General for Education and Culture, European Commission, EAC, 19, 106-130.
Ephrem, A. N., Namatovu, R., & Basalirwa, E. M. (2019). Perceived social norms, psychological capital and entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students in Bukavu. Education+ Training, 61 (7/8), 963-983.
Ferreira, A. S. M.; Loiola, E., & Gondim, S. M. G. (2017). Preditores individuais e contextuais da intenção empreendedora entre universitários: revisão de literatura. Cadernos Ebape. BR, 15(2), 292-308.
Ferri, L., Ginesti, G., Spano, R., & Zampella, A. (2019). Exploring factors motivating entrepreneurial intentions: the case of Italian university students. International Journal of Training and Development, 23(3), 202-220.
Fossen, F. M., & Büttner, T. J. (2013). The returns to education for opportunity entrepreneurs, necessity entrepreneurs, and paid employees. Economics of Education Review, 37, 66-84.
Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). (2017). Empreendedorismo no Brasil 2016. Recuperado de https://www. gemconsortium. org/report.
Gray, D. E. (2012). Pesquisa no mundo real. 2. ed. Porto Alegre: Penso.
Grosholz, J. M., Kabongo, J. D., Morris, M. H., & Wichern, A. (2020). Entrepreneurship education in the transformation of incarcerated individuals: A Review of the literature and future research directions, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 64(15),1551-1570.
Holzer, H. J., Raphael, S., & Stoll, M. A. (2003). Employment barriers facing ex-offenders. Paper presented at the Urban Institute Reentry Roundtable, Employment Dimensions of Re-Entry: Understanding the Nexus Between Prisoner Reentry and Work, New York.
Hoppe, A., Barcellos, M. D., Vieira, L. M., & Matos, C. A. (2012). Comportamento do consumidor de produtos orgânicos: uma aplicação da teoria do comportamento planejado. Revista de Administração e Contabilidade da UNISINOS - Base, 9(2), 174-188.
Ireland, T. D. (2012). Educação em prisões no Brasil: direito, contradições e desafios. Em Aberto, 24(86), 19-39.
Kautonen, T., & Palmroos, J. (2010). The impact of a necessity-based start-up on subsequent entrepreneurial satisfaction. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6(3), 285-300.
Keena, L., & Simmons, C. (2015). Rethink, reform, reenter: an entrepreneurial approach to prison programming. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 59(8), 837-854.
Liñán, F., & Chen, Y. W. (2009). Development and Cross-Cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3), 593-617.
Martins, F. S.; Santos, E. B. A., & Silveira, A. (2018). Intenção empreendedora: categorização, classificação de constructos e proposição de modelo. Brazilian Business Review, 16(1), 46-62.
Mcclelland, D. (1972). A sociedade competitiva: Realização e progresso social. Rio de Janeiro: Expressão e Cultura.
Moraes, C.; Simões, D., & Gonçalves, E. (2017). Educação no cárcere: uma análise dos processos educativos no Centro de Reeducação Feminina de Ananindeua/Pará. Revista Pedagogia Social UFF, 2(2) 1-20.
Minola, T., Criaco, G., & Obschonka, M. (2016). Age, culture, and self-employment motivation. Small Business Economics, 46(2), 187-213.
Pastore, J. (2011). Trabalho para ex-infratores. São Paulo: Saraiva.
Patzelt, H.; Williams, T. A., & Shepherd, D. A. (2014). Overcoming the walls that constrain us: the role of entrepreneurship education programs in prison. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13(4), 587-620.
Paul, J.; Hermel, P., & Srivatava, A. (2017). Entrepreneurial intentions—theory and evidence from Asia, America, and Europe. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 15(3), 324-351.
Rodermund, E. S. (2004). Pathways to successful entrepreneurship: parenting, personality, early entrepreneurial competence and interests. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(3), 498– 518.
Sarasvathy, S. D. (2004). Constructing corridors to economic primitives. Entrepreneurial opportunities as demand-side artifacts. In J. E. Butler (Ed.), Opportunity Identification and Entrepreneurial Behavior (pp. 291–312). Charlotte: Information Age Publishing Inc.
Schlaegel, C., & Koenig, M. (2014). Determinants of entrepreneurial intent: a meta–analytic test and integration of competing models. Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, 38(2), 291-332.
Silva, C. L. O., & Saraiva, L. A. S. (2013). Lugares, discursos e subjetividades nas organizações: o caso de uma prisão. Cadernos EbapeBR, 11(3), 383-401.
Souza, E. M.; Costa, A. S. M., & Lopes, B. C. (2019). Ressocialização, trabalho e resistência: mulheres encarceradas e a produção do sujeito delinquente. Cadernos Ebape Br, 17(2), 362-374.
Thiry-Cherques, H. R. (2009). Saturação em pesquisa qualitativa: estimativa empírica de dimensionamento. Revista PMKT, 3(2), 20-27.
Trochim, W. M. K. (1989). Outcome pattern matching and program theory. Evolution and Program Planning. v. 12(4), pp. 355-66.
Vale, G. M. V.; Corrêa, V. S.; & Reis, R. F. (2014). Motivações para o empreendedorismo: necessidade versus oportunidade? Revista de Administração Contemporânea,18(3), 311-327.
Van der Zwan, P., Thurik, R., Verheul, I. Hessels, J. (2016). Factors influencing the entrepreneurial engagement of opportunity and necessity entrepreneurs. Eurasian Business Review, 6, 273–295.
Van Gelderen, M. (2010). Autonomy as the guiding aim of entrepreneurship education. Education+ Training, 52(8/9), 710-721.
Vergara, S. C. (2003). Projetos e relatórios de pesquisa em administração (4. ed.). São Paulo: Atlas.
Wilson, D. B., Gallagher, C. A., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2000). A meta-analysis of corrections-based education, vocation, and work programs for adult offenders. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 37(4), 347-368.
Yitshaki, R., & Kropp, F. (2016). Motivations and opportunity recognition of social entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 54(2), 546-565.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
• 1. The author(s) authorize the publication of the article in the journal.
• 2. The author(s) ensure that the contribution is original and unpublished and is not being evaluated in other journal(s).
• 3. The journal is not responsible for the opinions, ideas and concepts expressed in the texts because they are the sole responsibility of the author(s).
• 4. The publishers reserve the right to make adjustments and textual adaptation to the norms of APA.
• 5. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work after publication simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
• 6. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
• 7. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access) at http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html• 8. Authors are able to use ORCID is a system of identification for authors. An ORCID identifier is unique to an individual and acts as a persistent digital identifier to ensure that authors (particularly those with relatively common names) can be distinguished and their work properly attributed.