The Canadian experience from the perspective of Brazilian immigrant entrepreneurship in Toronto
Keywords:Immigrant Entrepreneurship, Brazilians, Toronto, Canada.
Objective: The study aims at analyzing the socio-demographic profile of Brazilian immigrant entrepreneurship in Toronto, its entrepreneurial behavioral traits, in addition to their business profiles. Methodology/approach: The research is multi-method, with qualitative predominance, being exploratory-descriptive. For data-collection, it was conducted a survey and further deepening with face-to-face interviews and field observations. Main results: The majority declared themselves to be from the Brazilian Southeast, white, 35 to 49 years old, married, with children, high academic and professional background. The influence of the state of social malaise in Brazil and the official Canadian discourse, seem to act as factors of ‘expulsion-attraction’ to migration. The job condition of unemployment upon immigrants' arrival can ‘push’ them into necessity-driven entrepreneurship, although there are also ventures that have identified opportunities. Most of the businesses are small and operate in the service sector, concentrated on the West End of Toronto. In many businesses, there was a strong search for identification with the ethnic community itself, which suggests the formation of an 'enclave economy', but in some cases, the main market for local consumers was targeted. Theoretical/methodological contributions: The article highlights the importance of conducting multi-method research to understand possible entrepreneurial configurations by Brazilian immigrants. Relevance/originality: The article has academic relevance given the scarce work on the theme of Brazilian immigrant entrepreneurship overseas. Very little is known about this phenomenon in Canada. Social and management contributions: The entrepreneurial trajectories described minimize risks for future immigrants; also, the discussion about the social capital of the ethnic community allows comparisons with the business of Brazilians in other countries.
Achidi Ndofor, H., & Priem, R. L. (2011). Immigrant entrepreneurs, the ethnic enclave strategy, and venture performance. Journal of Management, 37(3), 790-818. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206309345020
Akbar, M. (2019). Examining the factors that affect the employment status of racialized immigrants: a study of Bangladeshi immigrants in Toronto, Canada. South Asian Diaspora, 11(1), 67-87. https://doi.org/10.1080/19438192.2018.1523092
Alba, R. D., & Logan, J. R. (1993). Minority proximity to whites in suburbs: An individual-level analysis of segregation. American journal of sociology, 98(6), 1388-1427. https://doi.org/10.1086/230193
Alba, R., & Nee, V. (2014). Rethinking Assimilation Theory for a New Era of Immigration. In M. M. Suárez-Orozco, C. Suárez-Orozco, & D. Qin-Hilliard (Eds.), Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the New Immigration: The New Immigrant in American Society (Vol. 3, pp. 2-50). New York/London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315054193
Aliaga-Isla, R., & Rialp, A. (2013). Systematic review of immigrant entrepreneurship literature: previous findings and ways forward. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 25(9-10), 819-844. https://doi.org/10.1080/08985626.2013.845694
Baeninger, R. (2018). Migrações transnacionais na fronteira: novos espaços da migração Sul-Sul. In R. Baeninger & A. Canales (Coords.), J. C. Jarochinski et al. (Orgs.), Migrações Fronteiriças (pp. 462-474). Campinas: Editora Unicamp. https://doi.org/10.20396/ideias.v2i1.8649329
Bailey, M. (2019). Snowball Sampling in Business Oral History: Accessing and Analyzing Professional Networks in the Australian Property Industry. Enterprise & Society, 20(1), 74-88. https://doi.org/10.1017/eso.2018.110
Bardin, L. (1977). Análise de conteúdo (L. A Reto, & A. Pinheiro, Trad.). Lisboa: Edições 70.
Bauer, M. W., & Gaskell, G. (2017). Pesquisa qualitativa com texto, imagem e som: um manual prático. São Paulo: Editora Vozes.
Bocachica Ávila, E. (2019). Crisis migratoria siria: derechos humanos en la normativa de la Unión Europea y sus estados miembros (2011-2015) (Trabajo de grado). Programa de Relaciones Internacionales, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Bogotá, Colombia.https://doi.org/10.21789/9789587251937
Bonacich, E. (1973). A theory of middleman minorities. American sociological review, 38(5), 583-594. https://doi.org/10.2307/2094409
Bonacich, E. (1993). The other side of ethnic entrepreneurship: A dialogue with Waldinger, Aldrich, Ward and associates. International Migration Review, 27(3), 685-692. https://doi.org/10.1177/019791839302700324
Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. Richardson, Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241-258). Greenwood, Indiana, USA: Social Capital Gateway and European Research Institute on Cooperative and Social Enterprises. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781529714517.n2
Buettner, T., & Muenz, R. (2020). Migration Projections: The Economic Case. KNOMAD Paper nº 37. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank Group.
Calais, B. A. et al. (2020). A crise dos refugiados venezuelanos e os impactos no Brasil. Jornal Eletrônico da Faculdade Vianna Júnior, 12(1), 157-175. Recuperado de https://jefvj.emnuvens.com.br/jefvj/article/view/735/727
Cameron, E. (Ed.). (2004). Multiculturalism and immigration in Canada: An introductory reader. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Scholars’ Press.
Cruz, E. P., & Falcão, R. P Q. de. (2017). Revisão bibliométrica no tema Empreendedorismo Imigrante e Étnico. Internext, 11(3), 78-94. https://doi.org/10.18568/1980-4865.11378-94
Cruz, E. P., Falcão, R. P. Q. de., & Barreto, C. R. (2018). Exploring the evolution of ethnic entrepreneurship: the case of Brazilian immigrants in Florida. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 24(5), 971-993. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijebr-08-2016-0239
Cruz, E. P., Falcão, R. P. Q. de., & Mancebo, R. C. (2020). Market orientation and strategic decisions on immigrant and ethnic small firms. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 18, 227-255. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10843-019-00263-2
De Haas, H. (2010). Migration and development: A theoretical perspective. International migration review, 44(1), 227-264. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2009.00804.x
Diniz, G. C. da S., Guimarães, L. de O., & Fernandes, D. M. (2019). Empreendedorismo Imigrante e Étnico: O Papel das Redes Sociais no Processo Empreendedor de um Imigrante Sírio no Brasil. Revista Eletrônica de Negócios Internacionais: Internext, 14(2), 161-174. https://doi.org/10.18568/internext.v14i2.467
Drori, I., Honig, B., & Wright, M. (2009). Transnational entrepreneurship: An emergent field of study. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(5), 1001-1022. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00332.x
Evans, D. S., & Leighton, L. S. (1989). The determinants of changes in US self-employment, 1968-1987. Small Business Economics, 1(2), 111-119. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00398629
Fraga, M. V. (2018). Política de imigração do Canadá: diversificação étnica e integração econômica. In L. Bógus. A nova face da emigração internacional no Brasil (Vol. 1). São Paulo: EDUC.
Gonzalez, N. L. (2020). Conflict, migration, and the expression of ethnicity. London: Routledge.
Goza, F. (1999). Brazilian immigration to Ontario. International Migration, 37(4), 765-789. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2435.00093
Greene, P. (1997). Ethnic sponsorship of business activities: A resource based approach. Journal of Small Business Management, 35(4), 58-71.
Gulati, G. J. (2012). Representing trafficking: Media in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada. In A. Brysk & A. Choi-Fitzpatrick, From human trafficking to human rights: Reframing contemporary slavery (pp. 44-72). Pennsylvania, USA: Pennsylvania Press. https://doi.org/10.9783/9780812205732.44
Hiebert, D. (2003). Canada: A false consensus. In R. Kloosterman & J. Rath (Eds.), Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Venturing abroad in the age of globalization (pp. 39-60). Oxford/New York: Berg/University of New York Press. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350151468.ch-003
Iceland, J., & Wilkes, R. (2006). Does socioeconomic status matter? Race, class, and residential segregation. Social problems, 53(2), 248-273.
ISED – Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada. (2019). Key small business statistics – January 2019 edition. Canada: Government of Canada. Recuperado de https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/061.nsf/eng/h_03090.html
Lee, J. (1999). Retail niche domination among African American, Jewish, and Korean entrepreneurs: competition, coethnic advantage and disadvantage. American Behavioral Scientist, 42(9), 1398-1416. https://doi.org/10.1177/00027649921954967
Light, I. H. (1979). Disadvantaged minorities in self-employment. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 20(1-2), 31-45. https://doi.org/10.1177/002071527902000103
Light, I. H. (1972). Ethnic Enterprise in North America: Business and Welfare among Chinese, Japanese, and Blacks. Berkeley, Los Angeles and California, USA: University of California Press.Light, I. H., Bhachu, P., & Karageorgis, P. (1990, April). Immigrant Networks and Immigrant Entrepreneurship. Anais California Immigrants in World Perspective: The Conference Papers, Institute for Social Science Research, University of California, Los Angeles, USA. https://doi.org/10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2002056
Light, I. H.; & Rosenstein, C. (1995). Expanding the interaction theory of entrepreneurship. In A. Portes (Ed.), The Economic Sociology of Immigration: Essays on Networks, Ethnicity, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. https://doi.org/10.1177/000169939704000208
Logan, J. R., Alba, R. D., & McNulty, T. L. (1994). Ethnic economies in metropolitan regions: Miami and beyond. Social forces, 72(3), 691-724. https://doi.org/10.2307/2579777
Ma, Z., Zhao, S., Wang, T., & Lee, Y. (2013). An overview of contemporary ethnic entrepreneurship studies: themes and relationships. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 19(1), 32-52. https://doi.org/10.1108/13552551311299242
Machado M. M., & Hossein, C. S. (2018). Empreendedores imigrantes brasileiros no exterior: uma oportunidade de Pesquisa em estudos organizacionais? Anais do Congresso Brasileiro de Estudos Organizacionais, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brasil 5. https://doi.org/10.29327/17085
Machado, M. M., Hossein, C. S., & Cruz, E. P. (2019). Empreendedorismo imigrante no exterior: um olhar sobre os brasileiros residentes em Toronto (ON/CAN). Anais do Seminário Internacional de Tecnologia, Educação e Sociedade – Práticas em Gestão e Inovação, Fatec Itaquaquecetuba/Centro Paula Souza Itaquaquecetuba, SP, Brasil. https://doi.org/10.14211/xi-egepe-118020
Machado, M. M., & Teixeira, M. L. M. (2019). Em busca da diferença e da igualdade: reflexões sobre multiculturalismo e interculturalismo. In A. P. Lombardi (Ed.). Arqueologia das Ciências Humanas e Sociais Aplicadas 4 (pp. 73-82). Ponta Grossa, PR: Atena. https://doi.org/10.22533/at.ed.3461915017
Margolis, M. L. (2013). Goodbye, Brazil: emigrantes brasileiros no mundo. São Paulo: Editora Contexto.
Margolis, M. L. (1994). Little Brazil: imigrantes brasileiros em Nova York. Campinas: Papirus.
Masurel, E., Nijkamp, P., Tastan, M., & Vindigni, G. (2002). Motivations and performance conditions for ethnic entrepreneurship. Growth and Change, 33(2), 238-260. https://doi.org/10.1111/0017-4815.00189
Minayo, M. C. D. S. (2007). Trabalho de campo: contexto de observação, interação e descoberta. Pesquisa social: teoria, método e criatividade, 26, 61-77.
Ministério das Relações Exteriores. (Brasileiros pelo mundo: estimativas populacionais (2016). Brasília, DF.
Nee, V., Sanders, J. M., & Sernau, S. (1994). Job transitions in an immigrant metropolis: ethnic boundaries and the mixed economy. American Sociological Review, 59(6), 849-872. https://doi.org/10.2307/2096372
Piñeiro, R. C., & Landa, N. (2018). El muro fronterizo de Trump y la política migratoria estadounidense. In R. Baeninger & A. Canales (Coords.), J. C. Jarochinski et al. (Orgs.), Migrações fronteiriças (pp. 15-29). Campinas: Editora Unicamp.
Portes, A. (1981). 13 Modes of Structural Incorporation and Present Theories of Labor Immigration. International Migration Review, 15(1_suppl), 279-297. https://doi.org/10.1177/019791838101501s15
Portes, A., Haller, W. J., & Guarnizo, L. E. (2002). Transnational entrepreneurs: An alternative form of immigrant economic adaptation. American Sociological Review, 67(2), 278-298. https://doi.org/10.2307/3088896
Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1992). Gaining the upper hand: Economic mobility among immigrant and domestic minorities. Ethnic and racial studies, 15(4), 491-522.Rath, J. (2000). Introduction: immigrant businesses and their economic, politico-institutional and social environment. In J. Rath (Ed.), Immigrant Businesses (pp. 1-19). London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.1992.9993761
Rath, J., & Schutjens, V. (2019). Advancing the frontiers in ethnic entrepreneurship studies. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, 110(5), 579-587. https://doi.org/10.1111/tesg.12398
Santos, B.S., & Menses, M. P (2010). Introdução. In Santos, B. S., & Meneses, M. P. (Orgs.). Epistemologias do Sul (2nd. ed.). Coimbra: Edições Almedina e CES.
Sarabia, H. (2020). Migrants, activists, and the Mexican State: framing violence, rights, and solidarity along the US-Mexico border. Citizenship Studies, 24(4), 512-529. https://doi.org/10.1080/13621025.2020.1755175
Sassen, S. (2007). The global city. In D. Nugent & J. Vincent (Eds.), A Companion to the Anthropology of Politics (pp. 168-178). New York, NY, USA: Wiley.
Sassen, S. (1990). The Mobility of Labour and Capital: A study in international investment and labor flow. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Schervier, Z. (2005). Brasileiros no Canadá: em busca de segurança? Interfaces Brasil/Canadá, 5(1), 231-252.
Schimmele, C., & Wu, Z. (2015). The new immigration and ethnic identity. Discussion Paper Series Document de travail, 3(1), article 1, 1-41.
Sega, R. (2018). Canadá em quatro tempos: o fluxo migratório de brasileiros para Toronto. In L. Bógus (Ed.), A Nova face da emigração internacional no Brasil (pp. 205-234). São Paulo: Editora PUC.
Sega, R. F. (2013). Projeto Canadá: seletividades e redes de imigrantes brasileiros qualificados em Toronto (Dissertação de Mestrado). Centro de Educação e Ciências Humanas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brasil. https://doi.org/10.14393/19834071.2012.15182
Simões, G. F (2018). A mudança do perfil do migrante venezuelano em Roraima e o aumento da xenofobia. In R. Baeninger & A. Canales (Coords.), J. C. Jarochinski et al. (Orgs.), Migrações fronteiriças (pp. 386-393). Campinas: Editora Unicamp.
Summers, D. (2015). The economic impact of entrepreneurship: setting realistic expectations. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 21(2), 99.
Teixeira, C. (2001). Construindo uma economia étnica em Toronto, Canadá. Scripta nova: revista electrónica de geografía y ciencias sociales, 77(94), on-line. Recuperado de http://www.ub.edu/geocrit/sn-94-77.html
Trenz, H. J., & Triandafyllidou, A. (2017). Complex and dynamic integration processes in Europe: intra EU mobility and international migration in times of recession. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(4), 546-559. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183x.2016.1251013
Vergara, S. C. (2006). Projetos e relatórios de pesquisa. São Paulo: Atlas.
Waldinger, R. D., Aldrich, H., & Ward, R. (1990). Ethnic entrepreneurs: Immigrant business in industrial societies (Vol. 1). Thousand Oaks, California, EUA: Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/69.3.925
Werbner, P. (1980). From rags to riches: Manchester Pakistanis in the textile trade. New Community, 8(1-2), 84-95.
Wilson, K. L., & Portes, A. (1980). Immigrant enclaves: An analysis of the labor market experiences of Cubans in Miami. American journal of sociology, 86(2), 295-319. https://doi.org/10.1086/227240
Xie, Y., & Gough, M. (2011). Ethnic enclaves and the earnings of immigrants. Demography, 48(4), 1293-1315. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-011-0058-8
Zhou, M. (2004). Revisiting ethnic entrepreneurship: Convergencies, controversies, and conceptual advancements. International Migration Review, 38(3), 1040-1074. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2004.tb00228.x
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Iberoamerican Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
• 1. The author(s) authorize the publication of the article in the journal.
• 2. The author(s) ensure that the contribution is original and unpublished and is not being evaluated in other journal(s).
• 3. The journal is not responsible for the opinions, ideas and concepts expressed in the texts because they are the sole responsibility of the author(s).
• 4. The publishers reserve the right to make adjustments and textual adaptation to the norms of APA.
• 5. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work after publication simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
• 6. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
• 7. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access) at http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html• 8. Authors are able to use ORCID is a system of identification for authors. An ORCID identifier is unique to an individual and acts as a persistent digital identifier to ensure that authors (particularly those with relatively common names) can be distinguished and their work properly attributed.